• Swallowing disorders - defined as difficulty in passing food or liquid from the mouth to the stomach - occur in all age groups, especially in the elderly. The disorders can occur at any stage of the normal swallowing process, in which food and liquid move from the mouth, through the pharynx, into the esophagus, and finally, into the stomach.
• The Oro-Pharyngeal swallowing disorders are common in individuals with sudden neurological damage as in stroke, or head or spinal cord injury. They may also occur after degenerative neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. In addition, patients with head and neck malignancy have difficulty with swallowing who should be seen by Swallowologist pre and post-operative.
• Recently, Oro-Pharyngeal dysphagia is considered as one of Speech-language pathology specialties and Swallowologist can assist in the evaluation and management of patients with oro-pharyngeal dysphagia. This unique specialty will provide clinical services such as evaluation, counseling, treatment, and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia, and minimizing compromises in respiratory or nutritional status associated with impairments in swallowing and feeding.