Any patients who have the following problems or diseases should be referred to the Swallowing disorder physician (Swallowologist):
1) Difficulty with eating or drinking.
2) Difficulty with chewing food
3) Loss of food or liquids from the mouth
4) Food sitting in the mouth long after a meal
5) Difficulty with swallowing of solids and/or liquids food
6) Coughing or choking when eating
7) Wet or gurgled voice after eating or drinking
8) Food sticking in the throat or chest.
9) Oro-facial muscle weaknesses associated with dysphagia
10) History of frequent attack of aspiration pneumonia
11) Frequent episodes of regurgitation, reflux, or spitting up after a meal.
12) Losing weight
13) Neurodegenerative disease (e.g., Amyotrophiclateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease).
14) Spinal cord injury.
15) Neurological injury (e.g., cerebrovascular accident or traumatic brain injury).
16) Following treatment for head and neck cancer (e.g., surgery and/or radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy).
17) Vocal fold mobility disorders (e.g., recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, superior laryngeal nerve injury).
18) Tracheostomy.
19) Mechanical ventilation or other respiratory issues (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchopulmonary dysplasia.